There is not one special test that can diagnose PCOS. Your doctor will start by asking questions about your medical history of symptoms such as irregular or skipped periods, weight changes, hair changes, and acne. Your doctor will also ask about your family’s medical history. Your doctor will check your weight and vitals and do a complete physical exam. A number of lab tests may be ordered including blood sugar and androgen levels. A sonogram may also be done to evaluate the ovaries.
These tests help to make a diagnosis of PCOS and exclude other causes for your symptoms. Your primary doctor may also refer you to a hormone specialist, or endocrinologist, to help direct the work-up needed to rule out other causes and confirm the diagnosis of PCOS.
In October 2013, the Endocrine Society released new guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS. A summary of the updated guidelines is here.